How to prepare and score Good marks in Biology Paper?

As far as competitive exams are concerned, especially those related to science and the medical field, Biology becomes a very important subject. For students aspiring to crack medical exams like NEET, a good command of Biology is essential to crack the competition. In Board exams, it is easy to score a 100 in the subject. All that is required is consistent hard work and motivation.

  1. Prepare a good Timetable – Make room for an ample amount of sleep and small breaks in between your study time. You should sleep for at least 8 hours a day to keep yourself fresh and active. A minimum of 4 hours a day is sufficient to score well in the subject. Sound sleep and a proper diet will increase your concentration power. Also, try to make your timetable in a way that you are able to complete the harder and boring chapters first. This will keep you free from any kind of stress and you can prepare well for board exams.
  2. Keep a reference material at hand (CBSE Study Material/CBSE Study Notes) – The best reference material should have maximum accuracy and least scope for errors. These CBSE Study Material/CBSE Study Notes are the best available option for reference. You can also find Toppers’ notes online, for free. Just like the CBSE materials, Topper’s notes are also a very good source of accurate and up-to-date information.
  3. Solve the CBSE previous years’ question paper – To test your preparation, you should solve the CBSE previous years’ question paper. You will be able to identify the chapters where you need to give extra attention and hence help you to prepare good answers for the exam.
  4. Try online test of biology class 12 – After solving the previous years’ papers, you can solve these class 12th practice tests. These online tests of biology class 12 will help in enhancing your skills by the variety of questions they offer. The pattern of questions asked in these class 12th practice tests will prove to be useful in strengthening your concepts and analytical thinking.

 

Here Are Some Important Chapter-Wise Topics In Biology

Reproduction

1: Reproduction in Organisms

  • Modes of reproduction – asexual reproduction & sexual reproduction
  • Asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation, vegetative propagation in plants

2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

  • Flower structure
  • Development of male and female gametophytes
  • Pollination-types, agencies and examples
  • Outbreeding devices
  • Pollen-pistil interaction
  • Double fertilization
  • Post fertilization events-development of endosperm and embryo
  • Development of seed and formation of fruit
  • Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony
  • Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation

3: Human Reproduction

  • Male and female reproductive systems
  • Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary
  • Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis
  • Menstrual cycle: fertilization, embryo development up to blastocyst formation, implantation
  • Pregnancy and placenta formation
  • Parturition
  • Lactation

4: Reproductive Health

  • Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
  • Birth control – need and methods
  • Contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP)
  • Amniocentesis
  • Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT

Genetics and Evolution

5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

  • Heredity and Variation: Mendelian inheritance
  • The Deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles inheritance of blood groups, and pleiotropy
  • Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance
  • Chromosome theory of inheritance
  • Chromosomes and genes
  • Sex determination – in humans, birds, honey bee
  • Linkage and crossing over
  • Sex-linked inheritance – hemophilia, color blindness
  • Mendelian disorder in humans – thalassemia
  • Chromosomal disorders in humans
  • Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

  • Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material
  • Structure of DNA and RNA
  • DNA packaging & DNA replication
  • Central dogma transcription, genetic code, translation
  • Gene expression and regulation – lac operon
  • Genome and human and rice genome project
  • DNA fingerprinting

7: Evolution

  • Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology, and molecular evidence)
  • Darwin’s contribution
  • Modern synthetic theory of evolution
  • Mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples
  • Types of natural selection
  • Gene flow and genetic drift
  • Hardy – Weinberg’s principle
  • Adaptive Radiation
  • Human evolution

 

Biology in Human Welfare

8: Human Health and Disease

  • Pathogens: parasites causing human diseases and their control
  • Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines: cancer, HIV and AIDs
  • Adolescence
  • Drug and alcohol abuse

9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

  • Improvement in food production
  • Plant breeding
  • Tissue culture
  • Single-cell protein
  • Biofortification
  • Apiculture and Animal husbandry

10: Microbes in Human Welfare

  • Household food processing
  • Industrial production
  • Sewage treatment
  • Energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers
  • Antibiotics – production and judicious use

 

Biotechnology

11: Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

  • Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

12: Biotechnology and its Applications

  • Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture
  • Human insulin and vaccine production
  • Stem cell technology
  • Gene therapy
  • Genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy, and patents

Ecology

13: Organisms and Populations

  • Organisms and environment
  • Habitat and niche
  • Population and ecological adaptations
  • Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism
  • Population attributes – growth, birth rate, and death rate, age distribution

14: Ecosystem

  • Ecosystems: Patterns, components
  • Productivity and decomposition
  • Energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy
  • Nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous)
  • Ecological succession
  • Ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release

15: Biodiversity and Conservation

  • Concept of biodiversity
  • Patterns of biodiversity
  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Hotspots
  • Endangered organisms
  • Red Data Book
  • Biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries, and Ramsar sites

16: Environmental Issues

  • Air pollution and its control
  • Water pollution and its control
  • Agrochemicals and their effects
  • Solid waste management
  • Radioactive waste management
  • Greenhouse effect and climate change
  • Ozone layer depletion