How to prepare and score Good marks in Bio-Technology Paper?

Biotechnology is a field of applied biology involving the utilization of living things in engineering, technology, medicine, and other useful applications. The modern use of Biotechnology mainly includes genetic engineering and cell and tissue culture technologies. For students aspiring to have a career in this particular field, a good command of Biotechnology becomes important. It is not difficult to score decent marks in the subject in board exams. All you require is hard work and motivation.


  1. Plan a Good Timetable – Make sure you get yourself proper sleep and a healthy diet. As it is very important to sleep for a minimum of 8 hours daily, to keep yourself fresh and active. This will also help you enhance your concentration power. There might be some topics that you find boring and time-consuming. You cannot leave these chapters as they are necessary for you to score well. Try to complete these boring chapters first, and then you can do the easier ones. So that as the exam time approaches, you remain free from pressure and can study patiently.
  2. Have a good reference material at hand (CBSE Study material/ CBSE Study Notes) – these reference materials are available on the internet, for free. You can download these CBSE study materials and can refer to them while study. Another good reference material is Toppers’ notes, which are also available online. Just like the CBSE study notes, these toppers’ notes also contain accurate and up-to-date information to prepare you well for your board exams. One good tip for you is to keep revising the syllabus on a regular basis. This helps in memorizing the important concepts in the subject.
  3. Solve the CBSE Previous years’ question papers – You cannot be sure if you have prepared well for the exam unless you test your preparation. The best way to check your preparation is to solve the CBSE previous years’ question papers. This will not only give you enough practice of the subject but will also help you identify the chapters where you should give more attention.
  4. Try the online test series class 12th in Bio-Technology – After solving the past year’s question papers, you can solve these class 12th practice tests available online. The questions compiled in these online test series class 12th are prepared by experts in the subject and are as per the CBSE standards. Solving these class 12th practice tests will strengthen your knowledge and will help you frame your answers well.

The Marking scheme of the examination

  • Unit V – Protein and Gene Manipulation – 40 marks
  • Unit VI: Cell Culture and Genetic Manipulation – 30 marks
  • Practical Examination – 30 marks


Marking scheme in Practical examination

  • Two experiments – 6+6 marks (only one computer-based practical)
  • Practical record – 4 marks
  • Viva on Practical – 4 marks
  • Project work Write up – 5 marks
  • Viva on the project – 5 marks

Important topics in BioTechnology

  • Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Genomics and Bioinformatics
  • Microbial Culture and Applications
  • Animal Cell Culture and Applications


Chapter-wise marking Scheme

  • Recombinant DNA Technology – 15 marks
  • Protein Structure and Engineering – 15 marks
  • Genomics and Bioinformatics – 10 marks
  • Microbial Culture and Applications – 10 marks
  • Plant Cell Culture and Applications– 10 marks
  • Animal Cell Culture and Applications– 10 marks


Unit V: Protein and Gene Manipulation

Chapter-1: Recombinant DNA Technology

  • Introduction
  • The tool of rDNA Technology
  • The Marketing Recombinant DNA
  • Introduction of Recombinant DNA into Host Cells
  • Identification of Recombinants
  • The DNA Library
  • The DNA Probes
  • The Hybridization Techniques
  • The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • DNA Sequencing
  • The Site-directed Mutagenesis

Chapter-2: Protein Structure and Engineering

  • Introduction to the World of Proteins
  • The 3-D Shape of Proteins
  • The Structure-Function Relationship in Proteins
  • The Purification of Proteins
  • The Characterization of Proteins
  • Protein-based Products
  • Designing Proteins (protein engineering)

Chapter-3: Genomics and Bioinformatics

  • Introduction
  • The Genome Sequencing Projects
  • Prediction of Gene
  • Gene Counting
  • Genome Similarity
  • SNPs (Single-nucleotide polymorphism)
  • Comparative Genomics
  • Functional Genomics
  • Proteomics
  • The History of Bioinformatics
  • Sequences and Nomenclature
  • Information Sources
  • The Analysis with the use of Bioinformatics Tools

Unit VI: Cell Culture and Genetic Manipulation

Chapter-1: Microbial Culture and Applications

  • Introduction
  • The Microbial culture techniques
  • The Measurement of microbial growth
  • The kinetics of microbial growth
  • Scale-up of microbial process
  • The Isolation of microbial products
  • Strain isolation and improvement
  • The Applications of microbial culture technology
  • The Bio safety issues in microbial technology

Chapter-2: Plant Cell Culture and Applications

  • Introduction
  • The Cell and Tissue Culture Techniques
  • The Applications of Cell and Tissue Culture
  • The Gene Transfer Methods in Plants
  • Transgenic Plants with Beneficial Traits
  • Biosafety in Plant Genetic Engineering

Chapter-3: Animal Cell Culture and Applications

  • Introduction
  • Animal cell culture techniques
  • The Characterisation of cell lines
  • The Methods of gene delivery into cells
  • The Scale-up of animal culture process
  • The Applications of animal cell culture
  • The Stem cell technology
  • Tissue engineering


  • The use of special equipment in biotechnology experiments.
  • The Isolation of bacterial plasmid DNA
  • The Detection of DNA by gel electrophoreses
  • The Isolation of Genomic DNA (CTAB method)
  • The Estimation of DNA
  • The Bacterial transformation using any plasmid
  • Restrictive digestion of plasmid DNA & its analysis by gel electrophoreses
  • The Isolation of bacterial grom curd & staining of bacteria
  • Cell viability assay
  • Data retrieval and database search using internet site NCBI and download a DNA and protein sequence from the internet, analyze it and comment on it
  • DNA sequencing gel reading to arrive at the sequence
  • Project work